Formatting Abstracts for Print

You can use formatting codes to specify how you want your abstract formatted when it is printed. For example, if you want to make the word "cat" bold, you would write "<bold>cat</bold>". The formatting code tells UMI Dissertation Publishing to make the word bold when print copies are created. See below for a list of common formatting requirements and how to indicate them in your abstract.

Note: at this time, the formatting codes will not affect how your abstract is displayed on the web.

Formatting Codes

Desired effect Formatting Code Visual Example
bold <bold>your words</bold> your words
italic <italic>your words</italic> your words
underlined <underline>your words</underline> your words
superscript <super>your words</super> other wordsyour words
subscript <sub>your words</sub> other wordsyour words

Special Characters

Below is a list of special characters you may need to include in your abstract, and codes for displaying them correctly.

Character Code for Display
&ldquo;
&rdquo;
&lsquo;
&rsquo;
&mdash;
&ndash;
° &deg;
& &amp;
® &reg;
© &copy;
&hellip;
&ge;
&le;
&larr;
&rarr;
&minus;
± &plusmn;
× &times;
&sim;
½ &half;
&infin;
· &middot;
é &eacute;
è &egrave;
ç &ccedil;
Å &Aring;
α &alpha;
β &beta;
χ &chi;
μ &mu;
ω &omega;
π &pi;
σ &sigma;
τ &tau;
ρ &rho;
ν &nu;
λ &lambda;
κ &kappa;